Ankara in Asia Ankara History Ancient city that became capital of the new Republic of Turkey in 1923. Following the collapse of the Ottoman Empire at the end of the First World War it became the headquarters of Kemal Ataturk in 1920 when Istanbul was occupied by the Allies


Aden in Asia Aden History Large natural harbour, strategically placed at the entrance to the Gulf. Home to a large oil refinery. A British colony and important staging post on the sea route to India and Australia. A British colony until 1967 when the British left, after fighting the Aden NLF […]

Indian Mutiny

Indian Mutiny in Asia History of Indian Mutiny The following concept of Indian Mutiny may be usefull here: A revolt by Indian troops in the British Army in India. Some historians suggest this was the early stages of the nationalist movement leading to Indian independence.

United East India Company

United East India Company in Asia History of United East India Company The following concept of United East India Company may be usefull here: The Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie (VOC), the Dutch company responsible for trade and colonisation in India, South Africa and the Far East.


Durbar in Asia History of Durbar The following concept of Durbar may be usefull here: In India, a royal court or ceremonial assembly. Also, the hall in a palace where public audiences and ceremonial assemblies were held.


Coolie in Asia History of Coolie The following concept of Coolie may be usefull here: A word commonly used to refer to cheap or menial labour, often from the Indian subcontinent or China. Its origin is uncertain. It may come from ‘kuli’, the Tamil word for a casual worker. Or from ‘Koullis’ or […]

Syngman Rhee

Syngman Rhee in Asia Syngman Rhee History Controversial first President of South Korea between 1948-1960. Regarded as an anti-Communist strongman, he was backed by the US and led South Korea throughout the Korean War. He resigned in 1960 following popular protests against his disputed 4th […]


Vietnam in Asia Vietnam War History Originated with the partition of the country, formerly French Indo-China along the 17th parallel. From 1960 Communist North Vietnam fought a guerrilla war against the South, forcing the South to rely on American assistance. Between 1965-1973 numbers of […]

West Bank

West Bank in Asia West Bank History Contested territory on the west bank of the River Jordan in the Middle East. Belonged to the Ottomans but was incorporated into the British Mandate of Palestine after the First World War. Captured by Jordan in 1948 and by Israel in 1967. It now has many […]

Presidency Towns

Presidency Towns in Asia History of Presidency towns The following concept of Presidency towns may be usefull here: For administrative purposes, colonial India was divided into three ‘presidencies’ (Bombay, Madras and Bengal), which developed from the East India Company’s ‘factories’ (trading […]


Diaspora in Asia History of Diaspora The following concept of Diaspora may be usefull here: People who are dispersed around the world due to enforced or voluntary migration. The term originally applied to the scattering of the Jewish people in the 8th century BC. Today, it is also often used […]

Chiang Kai-Shek

Chiang Kai-Shek in Asia Chiang Kai-Shek History Revolutionary Chinese leader. Head of the Nationalist Republic from 1928-1949. Defeated by Mao Zedong, his regime fled to Taiwan, still claiming to represent the whole of China and keeping China’s United Nations (UN) seat until 1971

Bal Gangadhar Tilak

Bal Gangadhar Tilak in Asia Bal Gangadhar Tilak History Born in 1856, he was an Indian nationalist, social reformer and independence fighter, known as the ‘Father of Indian Unrest’. He founded and led the Indian Home Rule League in 1914 and concluded the Lucknow Pact with Mohammed Ali Jinnah […]

Asia Minor

Asia Minor History The historic name for the geographic region comprising most of modern Turkey, bounded by the Black Sea to the North, the Mediterranean Sea to the South, the Aegean Sea to the West and the bulk of the Asian mainland to the East.


Hinduism in Asia History of Hinduism The following concept of Hinduism may be usefull here: Also referred to as Sanatana Dharma, the eternal faith, Hinduism is not strictly a religion. It is based on the practice of Dharma, the code of life. A detailed explanation of Hindu texts is found in […]


Satyagraha in Asia Satyagraha History Philosophy of non-violent protest or passive resistance, developed by Mahatma Gandhi as a means of pressing for political reform. It involves refusing to submit to or co-operate with anything perceived as wrong and was deployed from 1917 in India during […]

Mustafa Kemal

Mustafa Kemal in Asia Mustafa Kemal History Founder of the modern Turkish republic and President from 1923-1938. Played a key military role in opposing the Treaty of Sevres, and changed some of the terms. He encouraged the westernisation of Turkey, and became known as Ataturk – Father of the […]

East Indies

East Indies in Asia History of East Indies The following concept of East Indies may be usefull here: A general geographical description that frequently encompassed South Asia, the lands of Malaysia, and the islands of the Indian Ocean. In the context of this exhibition, it is often used in […]

General Suharto

General Suharto in Asia General Suharto History Indonesian military leader and President from 1967-1998. Strongly anti-communist, he received much Western support during the Cold War, providing a strong central government leading to a growth in living standards


Raj in Asia History of Raj The following concept of Raj may be usefull here: The British government in India during the period of direct British parliamentary rule (1858-1947).

Kim Ii Sung

Kim Ii Sung in Asia Kim Ii Sung History North Korean soldier. Founded the Korean People’s Revolutionary Army in 1932 and led the long struggle against Japanese occupation. He proclaimed the North Korean Republic in 1948, and became the Soviet-backed Prime Minister between 1948-1972 and […]

Muslim League

Muslim League in Asia Muslim League History Set up in 1906, the Muslim League demanded Indian independence from the United Kingdom. After the Congress Party won most provincial governments in 1936, Mohammed Ali Jinnah increasingly demanded partition. He would only countenance independence in […]


Rangoon in Asia Rangoon History Located in lower Burma where the Rangoon and Bago Rivers meet, close to the Gulf of Martaban, it is Burma’s most populous city and most important commercial centre. It was the capital from independence from the United Kingdom in 1948 until 2006. Renamed Yangon […]


Ceylon in Asia Introduction Modern Sri Lanka, an island nation in South Asia, located roughly 20 miles off the coast of India. Ceylon Government History Ceylon is a crown colony, that is, a possession of the British crown acquired by conquest or cession, the affairs of which are […]


Thakins in Asia Thakins History Burmese nationalist group founded in 1930. It combined tradition with modernity, bringing together traditionalist Buddhist nationalist elements and fresh political ideals. Comprised mostly of disaffected students, they co-operated with the Japanese occupation […]


Alexandretta in Asia Alexandretta History Ancient port founded by Alexander the Great, now part of Turkey but claimed by Syria. Part of the French Mandate in the region after the First World War, but given to Turkey in 1939 by France as part of a deal to keep Turkey favourable to the Allies

Indian National Congress

Indian National Congress in Asia Indian National Congress History Formed in 1885 as an educational organisation and to train Indians in government. Became the leading nationalist organisation under Ghandi in the 1920s and 1930s and developed an effective non-violent strategy to defy the […]


Megiddo in Asia Battle of Megiddo History Throughout the First World War Turkey threatened the United Kingdom’s oil supplies in Persia and territory in Egypt. The Allies were forced to deploy 600,000 British and Empire troops there and gradually drove the Turks back until they finally defeated […]


Buddhism in Asia History of Buddhism The following concept of Buddhism may be usefull here: Founded by Siddhartha Gauthama, the Buddha (the ‘Enlightened One’), Buddhism developed out of Hinduism and is practised in Japan, China, and South East Asia. It is based on the search for enlightenment.


Lascars in Asia History of Lascars The following concept of Lascars may be usefull here: Indian sailors or soldiers. Often used when referring to sailors who worked on East India Company ships and other merchant vessels.


Seoul in Asia Seoul History Capital city of the Republic of Korea – the American supported, anti-communist south of Korea established after the Second World War when the country was split along the 38th parallel.

Qing Dynasty

Qing Dynasty in Asia Qing Dynasty History The Qing Dynasty, also known as the Manchu Dynasty, was the last ruling dynasty of China. The Boxer Rebellion of 1900 weakened its power and the Dynasty was overthrown following the 1911 Revolution, when the Empress abdicated on behalf of the last […]


Anti-Fascist in Asia Anti-Fascist People’S Freedom League History Main political party in Burma from 1945-1962. Initially set up to oppose the Japanese in the Second World War, then re-constituted in 1945 to oppose the British and gain independence. Faced rebellions and conflict with […]